Cancer in India
These registries provide the most accurate information regarding cancer morbidity and mortality rates in India, thus helping in health expenditure planning for the disease at the national level.
In India, nearly 2.5 million people are living with a diagnosis of cancer. Incidence rate of cancer is more in females as compared to males. In the urban areas of country, the age-adjusted incidence of cancer ranges from 107.8 to 142.0/100,000 for women and from 92.1 to 126.1/100,000 for men.
The most common sites in women are the breast, cervix and oral cavity; while the most common malignancies in men are of oral cavity, lung, oesophagus and stomach.
Overall, breast, uterine cervix and oral cavity are the three most common sites of malignancies, accounting for about 34 per cent of more than 1 million cases diagnosed each year.
“Nearly 50 per cent of all cancer deaths in India can be attributed to cervical and breast cancer in women, and oral and lung cancer in men, with 40 per cent of all malignancies being attributable to tobacco consumption, ” said Dr Ravi Mehrotra, Director, National Institute of Cancer Prevention And Research
Up to 60 per cent of total cancer cases are preventable, and thus, prevention has a major role to play in cancer control. There is an urgent need to plan and implement national policies and programmes to increase awareness, to reduce exposure to cancer risk factors and to assist people adopt healthy lifestyles
Early diagnosis, treatment and palliative care constitute the spectrum of cancer management. Oncology is the most well-researched field of medicine with the maximum number of clinical trials. Treatment options include surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted immunotherapy. Treatment plans depend on the type of cancer, its stage and available resources.