Know about myopia, its symptoms, diagnosis and prevention

Myopia represents a vision condition in which an object close to the eyes is seen clearly ,whereas objects farther away appear blurred. The name is derived from the Greek term “muopia”, which means “close to the eyes”. The condition occurs if the eyeball is too long or the cornea (clear outer most layer of the eye) has too much curvature; as a result, the light that enters the eye lacks adequate focus, so distant objects look blurred

Image source: Google
Image source: Google

Symptoms and signs

If person is nearsighted, you typically will have difficulty reading road signs and seeing distant objects clearly, but will be able to see well for close-up tasks such as reading and computer use.

Other signs and symptoms of myopia include squinting, and headaches. Feeling fatigued when driving or playing also can be a symptom of uncorrected nearsightedness.

Diagnostic procedures

Myopia can be detected in children by various vision screening procedures at the paediatrician’s office or at school. A significant refractive error is suspected when visual acuity is reduced during a routine eye exam or vision screening. Although vision screening techniques such as photo-screening and auto-refraction can detec tmyopia, the prescription can only be accurately quantified using manifest or cycloplegicrefraction.

Surgery

Keratorefractive surgery uses lasers to re-shape the cornea and attempts to produce an emmetropic eye. If the surgery is successful then the patient will have excellent visual acuity without glasses or contact lenses. Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), laser in situ kertomileusis (LASIK) and laser epithelial keratomileusis are the most commonly performed refractive surgeries. Intraocular refractive surgeries are becoming more commonplace.

Primary Prevention

Various therapeutic modalities have been implemented for the treatment of myopic progression. The efficacy and safety of several of these treatment methods have not yet been determined. Currently there are no general guidelines for preventing myopia and the use of non-medically proven treatments remains controversial.

Studies have shown that intensive near work may be a contributing factor for myopia and myopic progression. Many authors have speculated that accommodating during near work may be contributing to the progression and development of myopia.