Even after only one hour of screen time daily, children and teens may begin to have less curiosity, lower self-control, less emotional stability and a greater inability to finish tasks, reports San Diego State University psychologist Jean Twenge and University of Georgia psychology professor W. Keith Campbell.
Twenge and Campbell’s results were published in an article, ‘Associations between screen time and lower psychological well-being among children and adolescents: Evidence from a population-based study,’ which appeared this month in Preventative Medicine Reports.
Their findings provide broader insights at a time when youth have greater access to digital technologies and are spending more time using electronic technology purely for entertainment, and also as health officials are trying to identify best practices for managing technology addiction.
“Previous research on associations between screen time and psychological well-being among children and adolescents has been conflicting, leading some researchers to question the limits on screen time suggested by physician organizations,” Twenge and Campbell wrote in their paper.
Earlier this year, World Health Organization decided to include gaming disorder in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases.
The organisation is encouraging “increased attention of health professionals to the risks of development of this disorder” as gaming addiction may now be classified as a disease.
Utilising National Survey of Children’s Health data from 2016, Twenge and Campbell analysed a random sample of more than 40,300 surveys from the caregivers of children aged 2 to 17.
The survey revealed that adolescents who spend more than seven hours a day on screens were twice as likely as those spending one hour to have been diagnosed with anxiety or depression – a significant finding. Overall, links between screen time and well-being were larger among adolescents than among young children.
“At first, I was surprised that the associations were larger for adolescents,” Twenge said. “However, teens spend more time on their phones and on social media, and we know that these activities are more strongly linked to low well-being than watching television and videos, which is most of younger children’s screen time.”
The study provides further evidence that the American Academy of Paediatrics’ established screen time limits – one hour per day for those aged 2 to 5, with a focus on high-quality programs – are valid, Twenge said.
The study also suggests that similar limits – perhaps to two hours a day — should be applied to school-aged children and adolescents, said Twenge, also author of “iGen: Why Today’s Super-Connected Kids Are Growing Up Less Rebellious, More Tolerant, Less Happy–and Completely Unprepared for Adulthood.”
In terms of prevention, establishing possible causes and outcomes of low psychological well-being is especially important for child and adolescent populations.
“Half of mental health problems develop by adolescence,” Twenge and Campbell wrote in their paper.
“Thus, there is an acute need to identify factors linked to mental health issues that are amenable to intervention in this population, as most antecedents are difficult or impossible to influence,” they continued.
“Compared to these more intractable antecedents of mental health, how children and adolescents spend their leisure time is more amenable to change.”
Source: San Diego State University